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Substâncias no sangue podem diagnosticar doenças

Pesquisa identifica substâncias no sangue que podem ajudar a diagnosticar doenças neurodegenerativas

Um estudo da Universidade de São Paulo (USP) que analisou o nível de três substâncias encontradas no sangue pode ajudar a entender o processo de envelhecimento do cérebro. Ao investigar os compostos envolvidos no chamado estresse oxidativo, que desequilibra a presença de radicais livres no organismo, os pesquisadores perceberam que essa desregulação ocorre de forma mais intensa em pacientes com Alzheimer. Os resultados abrem caminho para que, no futuro, possa ser feita a identificação precoce de doenças neurodegenerativas por meio de exames de sangue.

Atualmente, o diagnóstico definitivo do Alzheimer é feito somente após a morte do paciente com a análise de partes do cérebro. “Fomos atrás de marcadores [da doença] no sangue, porque trabalhos científicos recentes já consideram o Alzheimer como uma doença sistêmica e não exclusiva do cérebro. Então a gente acreditava que, se esse mecanismo de estresse oxidativo estivesse presente na doença, talvez a gente pudesse verificar ela perifericamente [no exame de sangue]”, explicou a professora Tania Marcourakis, da Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas (FCF) da USP.

Em uma primeira etapa, foram estudados três compostos presentes no sangue, cujos níveis variam de acordo com o envelhecimento: monofosfato cíclico de guanosina (GMP cíclico), óxido nítrico sintase (NOS) e substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (Tbars). Os pesquisadores compararam as plaquetas de três grupos de pacientes: 37 adultos jovens (18 a 49 anos), 40 idosos saudáveis sem nenhum tipo de demência (62 a 80 anos) e 53 idosos com Alzheimer (55 a 89 anos).

Eles verificaram que com o avanço da idade aumenta a presença da NOS e da Tbars e ocorre uma diminuição do GMP cíclico. “Com a doença, a gente viu que a Tbars aumenta mais ainda. Vimos uma escadinha: no envelhecimento ela sobe e com a doença de Alzheimer, sobe mais ainda. E a mesma coisa ocorre com o NOS, mostrando que são processos contínuos. Já o GMP cíclico, uma vez que ele diminui no envelhecimento, continuava diminuindo na doença”, expôs Marcourakis. Esse desequilíbrio leva a uma formação maior de radicais livres.

Com objetivo de identificar se o que foi percebido no sangue também ocorre no cérebro, a pesquisa entrou em uma segunda fase com a análise do cérebro de ratos. O trabalho foi feito em parceria com o professor Cristóforo Scavone, do Departamento de Farmacologia. “Percebemos duas coisas importantes: no envelhecimento do rato acontecia a mesma coisa que no humano e a mesma coisa que a gente achava no sangue, também encontrava no cérebro. Isso foi muito importante para validar o nosso modelo: o que você analisa no sangue, está refletido no cérebro”, disse a pesquisadora.

Marcourakis destacou que os resultados ainda não podem ser utilizados como diagnóstico de doenças neurodegenerativas, mas avançam na compreensão fisiopatológicas delas. “A gente entende melhor a doença. Veja o Alzheimer, por exemplo, ele não está só no cérebro, está no corpo inteiro, a análise do sangue mostrou isso”, declarou. Para apontar o quanto esses dados ajudariam no tratamento, seria necessário ampliar o estudo com populações maiores.

Além disso, é preciso descobrir um marcador específico de cada doença. “O estresse oxidativo não é exclusivo do envelhecimento, nem da doença de Alzheimer. Qualquer doença neurodegenerativa, como o Parkinson, tem o mesmo mecanismo”, explicou. Ela destacou que vários grupos de pesquisa no Brasil e no exterior dedicam-se a estudar diferentes substância com objetivo de descobrir formas de identificar cada vez mais no início essas doenças.

Apesar de não ter cura, o diagnóstico precoce do Alzheimer possibilita que os pacientes melhorem a qualidade de vida. “Hoje, quando você faz o diagnóstico, já tem um índice de morte de neurônio muito grande e não tem como reverter”, explicou a pesquisadora. As medicações existentes são compensatórias. “Elas aumentam o neurotransmissor que está faltando, mas eles continuam morrendo e chega a um ponto que o remédio não faz mais efeito”, disse. Quanto mais cedo a doença é identificada, a medicação pode funcionar por mais tempo. “Abre-se uma janela para que se possa atuar mais”, explicou a pesquisadora.

Fonte: (Agência Brasil)

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